When there is a surplus of estrogen in comparison to progesterone, the condition that results is known as progesterone deficiency. What differentiates this hormonal imbalance from simply low progesterone levels is the constant absence of progesterone in the body. As such, a progesterone deficiency carries its own list of causes, risk factors, signs, and symptoms.
Continue reading to learn and understand more about this life-threating hormonal imbalance.
What Is Progesterone Deficiency?
As aforementioned, a progesterone deficiency is not solely defined as low progesterone levels, but when a woman has abnormally low progesterone levels due to estrogen's unnecessarily high presence in the body. Moreover, a progesterone deficiency is continual and mid to long term; whereas, low progesterone levels are just temporary.
This is problematic due to the hormone's crucial role in the female body. Progesterone is known as a progestational hormone due to its work in helping to prepare the uterus for a fertilized ovum and maintain the pregnancy. In general, it works in conjunction with estrogen to promote the health of various other bodily systems as well, such as the cardiovascular system, immune system, and more.
Causes of Progesterone Deficiency
Because the endocrine system is affected by a range of factors, identifying the cause of progesterone deficiency from symptoms exhibited is key in moving forward with overall health.
Primary causes of progesterone deficiency aside from the transition into menopause include:
Poor bowel and liver function. Estrogens converted to inactive metabolites in the liver are eliminated through the bowels in urine or feces. If this system is not functioning correctly, it can trigger high estrogen levels or reabsorption of estrogen back into the body, throwing hormonal balance off kilter.
Thyroid problems. When there are excessive amounts of estrogen in proportion to progesterone, thyroid action is inhibited. Moreover, hypothyroidism also negatively affects clearance of estrogen from the body, contributing to the never-ending cycle.
Environmental pollutants. Non-biodegradable, endocrine-disrupting heavy metals - mercury, arsenic, and lead – and hormonally active xenoestrogens modify healthy hormone operations and cause subsequent bodily estrogen levels to rise. These pollutants are found in many places, such as in car exhaust; plastics (BPA); petroleum-based household products; commercial meats; and more.
- Exogenous hormones. Consuming birth control pills and prescription medications may elicit progesterone deficiency by encouraging high estrogen levels. The by-products of these foreign drugs cannot be properly broken down and removed from the body. This condition is especially prevalent amoung those partaking in HRT.
Risk Factors of Progesterone Deficiency
Moreover, there are a variety of characteristics – related to health and behavior – that put women at greater risk of having a progesterone deficiency.
- Health risk factors. The following traits make women have a higher risk of being progesterone deficient.
- Age. When menstrual cycles officially halt with menopause, so does the majority of progesterone production since ovulation no longer occurs. During these times, estrogen goes unopposed.
- Obesity. A large percentage of overweight and obese women struggle with hormonal imbalances due to battling with excess insulin, high estrogen, and an underactive thyroid.
- Behavioral risk factors. Progesterone deficiency is linked to various behaviors, including:
- Stress. Progesterone production is subdued and estrogen dominance occurs when a woman is under high stress because stress leads to an overproduction of cortisol in the body.
- Cigarette smoking. There is improper follicle and corpus luteum growth during the follicular and luteal phases, respectively, of smokers. This is because they have shorter follicular phases of their menstrual cycles, resulting in a progesterone deficiency.
- Poor diet. Consistently low levels of progesterone can be triggered by an unhealthy diet that is low in fiber and high in trans-fatty acids; sugar/ processed foods; and commercial poultry and beef that have been supplemented with estrogen-like hormones.
- Alcohol. Research has shown that alcohol-related changes in prolactin levels contributed to luteal phase defects, which were observed in social drinkers and alcohol-dependent women. High prolactin can disrupt ovulation or cause irregular periods, leading to a progesterone-deficient state.
Progesterone Deficiency Symptoms
Difficulty concentrating, cramping, mood swings, and irregular periods are some of the “normal” symptoms associated with having low progesterone levels. In fact, many progesterone deficiency symptoms are similar to those of low progesterone levels, just more pressing and usually continuous.
These critical symptoms of having a progesterone deficiency include:
- High cholesterol levels
- Memory loss
- Male-patterned baldness
- Intensified migraines
- Weight gain
- Autoimmune disorders, such as allergies
- And more
Complications of Progesterone Deficiency
When progesterone deficiency symptoms accumulate over time without proper strides taken toward management or treatment, they become complications. The following a few medical concerns paired with their observable traits for easier recognition:
- Excessive menstrual bleeding
- Painful periods (dysmenorrhea)
- Pain with bowel movements or urination
- Pain during intercourse
- Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)
- Uterine cancer
- Unusual vaginal bleeding, spotting, or discharge
- Difficulty or pain when urinating or with bowel movements (or with blood in both)
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Pain or feeling of pressure in pelvis, lower abdomen, back, or legs
- Thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism)
- Increased cold sensitivity
- Dry skin
- Muscle weakness, aches, tenderness, and stiffness
- Thinning hair
- Gallbladder problems
- Pain in upper right section of abdomen (may last for days)
- Nausea or vomiting
- Fever or chills
- Light-colored stools or dark urine
The aforementioned complications and more can evolve in the wake of a hormonal imbalance known as estrogen dominance, too.
Signs of Progesterone Deficiency
When a doctor identifies symptoms related to a progesterone deficiency, the following medical signs and test results will be gauged in order to officially diagnose the imbalance:
- Transvaginal ultrasound showing uterine masses, fibroids, or multiple ovarian cysts
- Positive endometrial biopsy or dilation and curettage (D&C) results
- Laparoscopy showing endometriosis lesions, cysts, adhesions, and scarring
- Pelvic examination done by a physician finding firm, irregular pelvic masses
- Ultrasound or HIDA scan confirming presence of gallstones or abnormal features of gallbladder
- Blood tests showing abnormal thyroxine or TSH levels
- Progesterone tests (blood, saliva, or urine tests) showing low progesterone levels for extended period of time
All in all, progesterone deficiency in the shadow of overpowering estrogen can turn into a severe problem if left untreated. Thankfully, there are methods to handle the hormonal imbalance before it worsens. Continue reading to learn more about increasing progesterone levels.
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